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PRESERVATIVES the necessary evil in skin care products Part 2 How do preservatives work?

“PRESERVATIVES the necessary evil in skin care products”

Part 2

How do Preservatives actually work?


“Preservatives are thought to act by disrupting membrane transport processes or by inhibiting synthesis of DNA and RNA  or of some key enzymes, such as ATPases and phosphotransferases, in some bacterial species. Propylparaben is considered more active against most bacteria than methylparaben.

The stronger antibacterial action of propylparaben may be due to its greater solubility in the bacterial membrane, which may allow it to reach cytoplasmic targets in greater concentrations. However, since a majority of the studies on the mechanism of action of parabens suggest that their antibacterial action is linked to the membrane, it is possible that its greater lipid solubility disrupts the lipid bilayer, thereby interfering with bacterial membrane transport processes and perhaps causing the leakage of intracellular constituents.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraben


Ortron is always keeping abreast of issues with certain raw materials and evaluates their potential hazards. Where possible we substitute ingredients which have questionable properties with much more acceptable ones. There are some very useful alternatives to parabens and Methyl chloroisothiazolinone & methyl isothiazolinone MIT, some are from natural sources. These alternatives will be discussed in more detail in another part to this topic of discussion regarding preservatives.


Two that are currently being debated and phased out due to major claims against them are Methyl ethyl propyl butyl isobutyl para benzoic acid (Parabens) and Methyl chloroisothiazolinone & methyl isothiazolinone (MIT).


In part 3 we will examine what the issues are with Methyl ethyl propyl butyl isobutyl para benzoic acid (Parabens)

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PRESERVATIVES the necessary evil in skin care products Part 1

PRESERVATIVES the necessary evil in skin care products Part 1


The 3 things that spoil your cream, probably about the only truly natural thing in your product

As unfortunate as it is, preservatives are very necessary in formulations or else products will exhibit very little to no shelf life. They prevent most bugs, or microorganisms, from ruining the formulations.


There are three types of contaminants that can spoil a formulation. They are bacteria, moulds and yeast. When these contaminants do develop, you can probably consider them the only true natural organic matter that would then be present in a formulation.


Preservatives are needed to protect all phases in the formulation, namely the oil, water and solid phase. To achieve this comprehensive protection antimicrobials are used. There are many types of preservatives to choose from. The list unfortunately, becomes smaller all the time as claims are made against certain types and requests are made for those types to be phased out.


Antimicrobials used in products prevent the growth of moulds, yeasts, and bacteria.

Antioxidants prevent personal care products from becoming rancid or brown, or sometimes even developing black spots. Antioxidants suppress reactions that may occur when ingredients in the product combine with oxygen in the presence of light, heat, and some metals. Antioxidants also minimize the damage to some essential ingredients or materials that are especially susceptible to oxidative damage.

Rancid personal care products may not make you sick, but they might smell bad or have a different colour or consistency from the original.

Part 2 will be examining how preservatives actually function.

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How does OEM relate to the skin care manufacturing industry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOW DOES OEM RELATE TO THE SKIN CARE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

We have been receiving many inquiries lately as to whether we are an OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) company. After researching what the term means we found many references to the car and IT industries but no direct definition for other industries.

In essence an OEM is a term used to infer that a company manufactures a generic (no label) product for another company to use with their label and to market in their designated field.


Ortron has been an OEM company since its inception around the 1980’s. The term used then was contract manufacturing whereby Ortron would prepare a product, fill in the clients preferred packaging and labelled with the clients markings. With the advent of the common use of acronyms, this description can then be easily shortened to an OEM.


One of the biggest benefits of this type of a relationship is that each company can concentrate on what it does best.

We at Ortron are able to manufacture and release a finished product and this is our strength. Our clients can then concentrate on the marketing and selling aspect of the products. This is the strength of our clients as they understand what their customers want from label design and packaging needs.

Our clients are also able to set up shops and franchises to help distribute their unique products and equipment.


Therefore OEMs rely on their ability to drive down the cost of production through economies of scale. Also, using an OEM allows the purchasing company to obtain needed components or products necessary for their market without having to own and operate a factory.

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Is it correct to call an ingredient natural or naturally derived

IS IT CORRECT TO CALL AN INGREDIENT NATURAL OR MORE APPROPRIATE TO CALL IT NATURALLY DERIVED

b2ap3_thumbnail_water_drop.jpg

http://naturalthings.yolasite.com/resources/ocean.jpg

The first thing one needs to ask is what do people mean by natural?

By definition natural means existing in nature and not made or caused by people. Coming from nature and not having any extra substances or chemicals added as well as not containing anything artificial.

So by this definition we can see that there are some natural things that can be used in skin care products. Honey is an example but most honey has to undergo some form of human intervention through heating or autoclaving in order to sterilize it of the bee excrement and other detritus. So under this circumstance, do we consider honey natural?

When stating something is “natural” do we really mean “naturally derived”?

Many skin care products in the market currently claim to use "natural" or "organic" ingredients in their formulations. This would be a wonderful concept and definitely evokes the idea of purity and wholesomeness but the reality is far from this ideal concept.

There are very few, if any, raw materials that can claim to be “pure” and “natural” as there always needs to be some sort of “human intervention” to yield a viable ingredient ready to be used in skin, body or hair care products.

An example is that of claims that a soap is “natural”. Soaps are usually manufactured through a process called saponification. This is a heated reaction between a caustic ingredient (such as lye or sodium hydroxide) and an oil or fat. The product off this reaction is a soluble salt. This salt is then able to lift off dirt and oils from the skin using a water loving head and an oil loving tail. Therefore the problem is that there are no naturally occurring soap ingredients.

When a product is reputed to be made from natural ingredients there needs to be a question of where this product occurs in nature. Even water is not “natural”. When making a cream, the water has to be purified otherwise there may be too much biological activity present in the final product. So in theory the only really natural ingredients present in the product will be the microbes that spoil the final skin care product!

Can something be considered natural or organic if it is derived from crude oil?

Theoretically yes. Oil is produced when organic matter decomposes and undergoes a series of heat and pressure situations yielding a thick, black and viscous solution made of a number of organic ingredients. This can then be separated by various distillation steps. It can therefore be assumed that products such as mineral oil, Vaseline (petroleum jelly), paraffin etc. can be classified as naturally derived and organic products but have been manufactured by human intervention.

Can raw materials be safely declared organic or natural?

Companies claim they can certify, register and guarantee ingredients as being organic and natural, in some cases at considerable extra costs to the raw material prices. These registrations that ingredients are organic or natural are creating thriving new businesses but there may be debate whether they may or may not be necessary. For any ingredient to be considered as "certified organic" and of "natural origin" the following points need to be taken into consideration:

  • ·         In many of the cases there had to be some form of human intervention to achieve the final raw material. The point is to what degree has there been human involvement.
  • ·         The product which has been farmed on a property specifically designed to not introduce herbicides, pesticides and other objectionable additives, cannot necessarily guarantee that the neighbouring property has not used those products. The wind is indiscriminate which way it blows and so no guarantee that there had been an avoidance of introduction of the these unwanted elements. Some of the airborne pesticides and herbicides may still land in the property that tries to prevent using them. How does one analyse for all these variables and so "certify" them?
  • ·         Water travel used for irrigating the crops may travel through a water table. There is no reassurance that the water is not contaminated by man-made pollutants such as chemicals from fracking coal seam gas. The water sourced from dams and estuaries may be contaminated from run-off. Even rain has no guarantee of being pure due to the airborne pollutants present which are absorbed into the water droplets forming rain.

The underlying conclusion is that man has polluted the earth so much that in reality it is not possible to source ingredients that are completely natural. Nearly all of the raw materials used in skincare formulations have undergone some form of human intervention to yield a suitable ingredient for formulating. Instead of calling them "natural" or "organic" we should really call them “naturally derived”.

Ortron uses many raw materials in their formulations. The fats, oils, emulsifiers, herbal extracts, essential oils, etc are all sourced from sustainable plant origin where possible. Ortron is always researching plant alternatives for any animal derived raw materials they use. 

b2ap3_thumbnail_waterfall.jpg

https://www.google.com.au/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiwiumOkfrOAhXMq5QKHbt6DsUQjRwIBw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fblogs.rediff.com%2Fraatkiraat%2F&psig=AFQjCNEFFVViLv_ureVDaJNeWmEyc-KiIw&ust=1473230385999486

 

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What is a moisturiser? Is it the same as an emollient a humectant or a hydrotrope?

What is a moisturiser? Is it the same as an emollient a humectant or a hydrotrope?
Moisturisers, emollients, humectants and hydrotropes have one thing in common, they all deal with water in one way or another.
There seems to be a misconception that moisturisers and emollients are the same thing. Unfortunately they are not exactly the same, hence they have a different name.
MOISTURISER
A moisturiser is an emulsified blend of fats, waxes and oils which utilises properties of those certain chemicals to enhance the moisture retention level on the skin surface.
As explained before in Ortron’s blog (“Are sun screens really as effective as people wish you to believe?”) skin can dry out due to heat from the sun and dry air. “Once the skin has no more moisture to protect it, then the skin starts to denature (much like what happens when you boil an egg and the albumen changes form). This denaturing creates what we perceive as pain and burning. After this burning, we have the blistering of the skin which leads to that typical peeling of the skin.”
This drying out of the skin also results in premature aging of skin. The skin starts to lose its elastic properties as there is some damage to the collagen and elastin under the epidermis through the heat and drying.
Therefore a moisturiser must allow the skin to “breathe” and also to maintain a balanced level of moisture. This helps to maintain its suppleness but only as long as the moisturiser is always present. Unfortunately we perspire and the cream dries out so we need to regularly apply the cream to achieve maximum effect.
EMOLLIENT
An emollient is a product that “softens” and “oils” the skin making it more pliable but not necessarily retaining moisture onto the skin. If anything it may actually occlude rather than retain the water onto the skin. So “Sorbolene” creams are mainly emollients but not very good moisturisers as they are made up of heavy emollients such as vaseline or petroleum jelly with some emulsifiers.
Examples of emollients are capric caprylic triglyceride, cetearyl octanoate, lauryl alcohol, PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate, almond oil
HUMECTANT
A humectant is a product that reacts with water, binding it hydrostatically into a mesh type network. This doesn’t necessarily result in any type of moisturising effect as the water is hydrostatically bonded within the humectant molecule. This is invariably used to prevent a product from drying out.
Examples of a humectant is propylene glycol, glycerine, and sorbitol.
HYDROTROPE
A hydrotrope is a product that binds water through electrostatic forces due to their strong affinity to water (through their hydrophilic, or water loving, head) and some organic molecules (through their short chain hydrophobic, or water hating, tail). Hydrotropes are fantastic when used in products such as conditioners. Through its ability to capture water molecules and bind them tightly to an organic phase (the hair follicles) they prevent hair drying out through harsh hot blow drying.
Some examples of hydrotropes are cyclodextrin, dendrimer, sodium benzoate.

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Shaving problems resulting in razor burn and ingrown hairs

Shaving 1

Major problems associated with shaving and depilating

Common complaints encountered when shaving or depilating hair are;

  • In the case of shaving, developing shaving rash or razor bump and 
  • Most commonly the formation of ingrown hair when shaving or depilating.

These are best shown in figure 1 2


ingrown hair and razor bump

There are many various methods employed for hair removal:

  • Shaving using sharp blades and a “soap”
  • Plucking the hair out
  • Waxing (whereby a layer of wax is applied followed by a rapid removal of the wax layer)
  • Using a scrubbing material to vigorously massage the follicles out
  • Laser burning of the hair strand
  • Electrolysis (which involves the insertion of a fine needle into the hair follicle down to the hair root. A mild current is then passed down the needle to the tip. This then cauterizes the hair root enabling the hair to be withdrawn).


All these methods have the potential to develop some form of ingrown hair problem, although the electrolysis method has a higher success rate at removing the hair permanently with very few side effects. The method discussed in this blog is on the use of shaving products for face and body.

Most shaving products use the philosophy of hardening the follicle then running a razor blade over it. This will initially tug the hair out slightly from the skin so that it can then be cut by the blade. The problem with this method is numerous.

  1. The method of stiffening the hair follicle results in a spear like fibre piercing the skin when it springs back into the root. It can then be trapped under the skin rather than being freely able to grow through the orifice naturally occurring for it.
  2. Another issue is that some hair follicles will stiffen up but recoil like a spring and curl under the skin. This then develops a lump where the hair continues to grow in a coil pattern under the skin and not able to be released. This is particularly problematic for the African/American type skin where the hair has a tendency to curl naturally.

Many of these shaving products come as soap bars, sticks, lather creams, foaming aerosols and oils. They are usually very high pH products having pH values around 9 to as high as 11 in combination with stiffening waxes (not the shave oils which would have an apparent neutral pH) which are not really suited to the pH of the skin as they would tend to dry and strip the skin of it's natural oils. The pH is kept high possibly under the premise that it minimises any irritations to the skin from the shaving.

Ortron Corporation has developed and is marketing a unique shaving cream (Tetrashave™). This skin care product goes against all of the above mentioned principles of how a shaving product should function. Unlike the anionic properties (negative ions) of the stearic acid in combination with the triethanolamine to neutralise and form the basis of the emulsion, the Tetrashave™ has a totally unique and innovative formulation.

The Tetrashave™ is a type of skin conditioner and not an anionic soap. It is a cationic (positive ions) formulation which incorporates a slightly high pH in combination with tea tree oil and herbal extracts. The conditioning effect of the cation along with a pH around 7 to 7.5 helps to soften the hair fibre of the beard or body and does not harden them.

Therefore when the blade passes over the follicle and cuts a soft hair there will be no recoiling or springing of the hair. The tea tree oil assists in the healing process of the skin after a blade has abraded the skin. Tea tree oil is critical in the formulation as it helps avoid infections of the skin and hair root.

This cream then acts as a type of skin moisturiser by trapping moisture onto the skin surface and therefore is a great skin care product. Men and women would not need to use any moisturisers after using Tetrashave™. The subtle herbal fragrance will also not interfere with any aftershaves or perfumes that people may want to use. Women could safely use this product to shave their legs, underarms and even the scalp.

 

References

1 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/64/AtTheCuttingEdge.jpg/280px-AtTheCuttingEdge.jpg
2 http://www.paradoja7.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/ingrown-hair-diagram.jpg

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Vitamin C and its relationship to Anti-Ageing products Part 1.

 

 fruit bowl

 

Vitamin C and its relationship to Anti-Ageing products.


Background, Technical study paper Part 1

ASCORBIC ACID, THE MIRACLE VITAMIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS FOR ALL BEINGS

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a powerful antioxidant. It neutralises free radicals caused by sun exposure. Radicals are molecules with unpaired electrons. They are very harmful to the body as a result of their high reactivity. This type of reactivity may induce mutations and possibly cancer. Vitamin C, being an excellent source of electrons, can therefore donate electrons to free radicals such as hydroxyls and superoxides and “quench” their reactivity. Ascorbic acid may be sourced through many fruits and vegetables, some of which contain significantly higher levels of vitamin C than others, for example kakadu plum, papaya as well as vegetables such as broccoli and brussel sprouts.

The name ascorbic acid derives from the Latin of a-, meaning “no” and scorbutus, meaning “scurvy”, a disease caused through the lack of vitamin C. This disease potentially ranks as the second most important nutritional deficiency, after protein-calorie malnutrition. Scurvy, once common among sailors, causes bleeding and inflamed gums, loose teeth, poor wound healing, pain in the joints, muscle wasting and more.

 

 Ascorbic acid structure                                     Ascorbic acid ball figure


                                    
Figure 1 A simple schematic and ball diagram of L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)1

The structure of vitamin C is simple (see Figure 1) and resembles a monosaccharide as it is derived from glucose. Most animals are able to synthesize ascorbic acid. Only primates, guinea pigs, and some fruit bats have lost the ability to synthesize it.

Ascorbic acid is a vitamin and vitamins are organic molecules that mainly function as catalysts for reactions in the body. Catalysts are substances that lower the energy and time necessary for the progress of a chemical reaction. Under normal circumstances these reactions may, in most cases, take considerable time and energy to achieve completion.

HOW DOES VITAMIN C ACTUALLY WORK

Vitamin C is water-soluble and very important to all humans because it is vital for the production of collagen. Inside the cell, it helps form a precursor molecule called "procollagen" that is later packaged and modified into collagen outside the cell. Collagen (refer to blog “The role of collagen and elastin”) is a gluelike substance that binds cells together to form tissues.

It is the most abundant of the fibres contained in connective tissues. Connective tissue gives the human body form and supports its organs.2  Collagen production increases skin thickness and density causing a plumping effect thus decreasing the appearance of wrinkles. Elastin is responsible for skin elasticity and for the repair of temporary creases.

Vitamin C is the only antioxidant that has been proven to stimulate collagen production. Linus Pauling wrote about the connection between vitamin C and collagen in 1986.3 His theory was that it would be beneficial for the body to absorb masses of amounts of the vitamin C in order to properly combat the effects of influenza and other ailments. This just happens to be a slight exaggeration on his part but in essence there is definite merit to his theory.

A molecule of ascorbic acid is much easier to absorb through the outer skin than proteins such as collagen and elastin. A major problem though with the ascorbic acid is that when it comes in contact with water it hydrolyses and breaks down to a straight chain sugar molecule as shown in the reaction in figure 2. Water will therefore divide the vitamin C molecule up into a glucose-type straight chain molecule and thereby render it useless for its intended purpose.

Vitamin C is also important in that it helps protect the fat-soluble vitamin A, as well as fatty acids from oxidation. A symbiotic combination of vitamins C and E results in a more powerful anti-oxidant than the vitamins on their own.

 Ascorbic stick for reaction with water      Glucose from vitamin c


Figure 2 Reaction of water with L-ascorbic acid

WHERE DOES THE VITAMIN C HAVE TO BE FOR FULL EFFECT

Simply eating a large amount of fruit to absorb the vitamin C does not facilitate a proper use of the molecule. A small amount of the vitamin may enter the blood stream. It then needs to somehow reach the designated areas where collagen build up is necessary. This method is therefore too unreliable to be properly effective.

Rubbing dry L-ascorbic acid on the skin achieves very little except to irritate the skin. Vitamin C is an acid and therefore can have the same effects as that of alpha hydroxy acids (AHA, see Ortrons easlier blog on this topic)

Somehow the vitamin C needs to be "placed" under the skin to where the collagen and elastin are formed. Injecting the product is very invasive and not necessarily achieving its intended function.

Firstly in order for vitamin C to reach specific areas under the skin of the body, it needs to be micronised thereby reducing the particle size and increasing its reactive surface area and solubilisation. This particle reduction enhances skin penetration. The micronisation is carried out in an oil medium in conjunction with the vitamin C which helps to prevent  molecular decomposition. This decomposition occurs through the heat generated while reducing the particle size. The other purpose of the oil is to coat the reduced particle hence reducing the likelihood of absorption of moisture from the air which leads to decomposition. This admixture can then be used in a skin care formulation cream which enables delivery of the vitamin C through the skin to the areas where it is needed.

There are many vitamin C creams on the market but very few actually achieve the desired results.

OTHER BENEFITS FROM VITAMIN C

A debate exists over the anticancer properties of vitamin C. However, current evidence suggests that the major benefit of ascorbic acid with regard to cancer may be in reducing the risk of developing cancer, rather than in therapy. Vitamin C can work inside the cells to protect DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid), the hereditary material in cells, from the damage caused by free radicals. Also, it can reduce the development of nitrosamines (amines linked to the NO group) from nitrates, chemicals that are commonly used in processed foods. Once formed, nitrosamine can become carcinogenic (cancer-causing).4

Part 2 of this study on vitamin C will be examining current methods of delivering the active ingredient vitamin C to areas where it is needed compared to the patented specialty skin care cream, the Transdermal Delivery system™.

The article will be titled “The development of TRANCEED ™ and the unique transdermal delivery system technology, Technical study paper Part 2”.

This article highlights how advanced Ortron has progressed ahead of the market in respect to skincare manufacture and product development and research, in particular regarding the exclusive patented products. These skin care products cater for the more boutique small businesses that wish to market a value added product which currently have no rivals.

References
1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:L-Ascorbic_acid.svg
2 http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Ar-Bo/Ascorbic-Acid.html#ixzz3FzsqY71L
3 http://www.vitamincfoundation.org/collagen.html
4 http://www.chemistryexplained.com/Ar-Bo/Ascorbic-Acid.html#ixzz3FzsqY71L




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What is the role of collagen and elastin and do these type of creams really work?

In order to understand what collagen and elastin do, we must first understand;


  1.   what these molecules are and;

  2.   what are their functions in the skin.


What is collagen and elastin?
Wikipedia edition June 2014 quotes that:
Collagen is the main structural protein of the various connective tissues in animals. As the main component of connective tissue, it is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up from 25% to 35% of the whole-body protein content. Collagen, in the form of elongated fibrils, is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments and skin, and is also abundant in corneas, cartilage, bones, blood vessels, the gut, and intervertebral discs. The fibroblast is the most common cell that creates collagen.
Elastin is a protein in connective tissue that is elastic and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched. Elastin is also an important load-bearing tissue in the bodies of vertebrates and used in places where mechanical energy is required to be stored. In humans, elastin is encoded by the ELN gene
.”

Figure 1 of the skin structure in relation to the effects of collagen and elastin 1


What is the function of these molecules in the skin?
In essence we note that the role of these molecules is to act like a “spring” so as to return the plumpness in the skin. When you visualise the skin surface having folds and crevices (as seen in the above schematic diagram), then the role of the collagen and elastin is to “push” these creases out from the inside in order to reverse the aging process. This naturally happens in young skin when it is pinched or distorted in some way.
Unfortunately, as we get older that “springiness” in our collagen and elastin start to break down and cannot function well to prevent the signs of aging. These molecule then become stiff and brittle.
Following is a detailed description taken from the website for The Dermal Institute (Postgraduate Education in Skin and Body Therapy) of an article “Structural Changes Associated with Aging Skin” by Dr. Diana Howard 2
“Breakdown of Collagen and Elastin
The majority of age-dependent changes that occur in our skin happen in the dermis, which can lose from 20-80% of its thickness during the aging process. This is the result of changes in the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for collagen, elastin and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis. Not only is the collagen and elastin produced at a slower rate, which impacts the skin’s inability to repair itself, but the organization of the protein also changes, affecting the skin’s structure.
The breakdown of collagen and elastin is controlled by the activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes known as collagenase and elastase, respectively. Studies have shown that UV radiation activates these enzymes within hours of UVB exposure. Long-term elevation of the MMPs, which is typically found in people with prolonged exposure to sunlight, results in disorganized and clumped collagen and elastin that is characteristic of photodamaged skin.
Changes in elastin fibers are so characteristic in photoaged skin that the condition known as elastosis is considered a hallmark of photoaged skin. This is characterized by an accumulation of amorphous elastin protein and a breakdown in the typical structural layout, which results in decreased skin elasticity and tensile strength. This phenomenon accounts for why more mature skin takes longer to assume its original position when extended or pulled.”


So what can be done to repair the collagen and elastin in the skin?
There are many collagen and elastin skincare creams on the market that claim to help stabilise the collagen and elastin levels in the skin. These creams contain the molecules. Only problem is that for these elements to have any effect they must be somehow “placed” under the skin as shown in the following picture.

Figure 2 Simplified model of collagen and elastin 3


These proteins do not travel through the skin and so there is some doubt cast over these claims. At best these creams would only help to “fill in the nooks and crannies” on the skin, much like spakfilla does in the cracks and holes in a wall. These creams help to bridge across the crevices but unfortunately once the cream dries out on the skin, then the creases reappear to then have to undergo the same procedure again.


Needling is another method to repair the creases but this method is painful and invasive. This method is not always a guarantee of success.
The only effective way of rebuilding the collagen and elastin under the outer skin layer is to allow the body the ability to naturally fabricate it. This is what normally happens in the body when it is young but diminishes with age. One of the recognised methods to do this is by use of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). 4
An article presented in the NYU Langone Medical Centre website, showed that apart from using alpha-lipoic acid or other anti-oxidants have shown that:
A small, 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study found benefit with a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid . Use of this antioxidant substance improved several measures of aging skin as compared to placebo, especially skin roughness. Benefits have also been seen in preliminary studies with a cream containing vitamin C .”
Antioxidants are substances that neutralise free radicals. These free radicals are created by ultraviolet light from the sun. They are naturally occurring substances that can harm many tissues of the body, including the skin. 5


Vitamin C is a powerful, naturally occurring anti-oxidant that acts as a trigger mechanism for the body to rebuild the 2 proteins in the area where the ascorbic acid is present. Any topical oil in water cream applications will not have many benefits because ascorbic acid is easily hydrolysed when in contact with water and so is very unstable. The molecule readily undergoes breakdown to form inefficacious hydrolised by-products.


Using derivatives of ascorbic acid, such as ascorbyl palmitate, will give little results because these types of molecules are too strongly bound for the body to be able to break down to yield the useful acid form. Too much energy is necessary to be able to break the molecule to the acid form of the vitamin C.
So the only problem remains is how to transport the vitamin C to the areas where it is needed namely under the subcutaneous layer of the skin?


This will be discussed in the next  blog on “Vitamin C and its relationship to Anti-Ageing products.

 

References

1 http://rankines.com/CUSTOMER%20CARE/SKIN_INFO/files/Collagen-Elastin-Production.png
2 http://www.dermalinstitute.com/au/library/11_article_Structural_Changes_Associated_with_Aging_Skin.html
3 http://www.wrinkletreatment.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/collagen_elastin.jpg
4 http://www.med.nyu.edu/content?ChunkIID=38389
5 http://www.med.nyu.edu/content?ChunkIID=38389

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how to design a label with respect to information and acceptable wording for directions

Things to consider when designing a label. What you can and cannot write.
(This blog is a little longer than normal as many things need to be addressed and follows on from a previous blog on selecting packaging).

Once you have sorted out the packaging for that exclusive skin care range, you need to consider what to do about displaying the information on the product.

Here is a mock example of a label.

Humperbug label


Firstly there are 2 considerations

1. Should the packaging be printed on? Or
2. Should the packaging have a label applied?

Both of these have their advantages and disadvantages.

Printing directly onto the packaging

The advantage of printing directly onto the packaging is that:

1. It is permanent and cannot be affected by the material inside, in most cases
2. It looks smooth on the packaging with no edge ridges of a label
3. The print can be very striking and clear and even raised (3-D effect)
4. It is the best method to use on tubes
5. Once the machine is set up and aligned, runs are much quicker than when having to apply labels.

The disadvantages are that

1. You are forced to print a minimum quantity, most times in the thousands otherwise it is very cost ineffective to have short runs
2. You are stuck with printed packaging which may take a considerable time to use up and take up a considerable space to store
3. If you make a mistake on the print then it is permanent and only removed by discarding the whole packaging
4. In the process of starting up the print run, there can be quite a few items of the packaging that will not print well.  These items cannot be used as they will look wrong. This happens when there is the need to align the different print runs for the different colours. This affects you most if you are supplying the packaging and you have a definite number you need (an example is if you supply 1,000 bottles you may only get 950 back).

Printing on labels

The advantage of printing on labels which can be affixed to the packaging is

1. Regardless of how many labels you print ranging from 100 to 10,000, the storage of the rolls or sheets take much less space than storing printed packaging
2. If there are any errors in the label, the discard process is much less costly as it is just a case of throwing away the labels
3. If the labels are applied to the wrong product the situation can be simply rectified by removing the label unless the label is paper which unfortunately can leave glue or material behind.
4. There are many more ways to print on labels as opposed to straight on the packaging. Gold or silver foil stamping look very impressive on vinyl type labels
5. It is possible to have a booklet type label where more information can be displayed or where several languages need to be included other than English (especially useful for the European Union requirements)
6. You need to only label the number of products you wish to fill and not significantly more
7. There is no packaging wastage necessary.

The disadvantages are

1. The cost to apply the labels needs to be considered when evaluating feasibility of using labels.
2. It can take longer to apply the label than to have the packaging printed
3. In most cases the packaging can definitely show where the label is, due to the edge surrounds of the label
4. Labels on tubes can develop creases when the tube is squeezed to expel the product
5. Economically it becomes non feasible for large runs such as 10,000 units or more.

Creating the information to be displayed

Once a decision has been made on which way the information will be presented then it is necessary to develop a unique registered logo and a name for the brand and the product inside.

Your skincare contract manufacturer and formulator should provide you with an ingredients list in descending order of concentration which is mandatory to be printed on the label. In order to cover all markets in the world it would be safest to give both the common name (which is most necessary in the US market) as well as the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) name (most necessary in the EU market).

Some examples

* Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil.
* In the case of herbal extracts the common and Latin names as well as where it is extracted from eg. Chamomila matricaria (chamomile) flower extract

Next you need to use your creative skills to make a little story about the product and how to use it. For example “tea tree originated in Aboriginal times. Wounded natives found that bathing in the pools of water which tea tree grew in, aided the wounds to heal much quicker rather than just leaving the wounds untreated. Tea tree is called as such because tea was hard to come by in the early colonial days so settlers improvised by boiling the leaves of the tea tree fronds.

Next write a short description for application and use of the product. For example “place a small amount on affected areas and spread on the skin followed by gentle tapping into the skin for maximum absorption”.

It is best to try to associate this product with other products you may have in your range. For example “After cleansing your face with “my brand” face cleanser you should use this “my brand” toner followed by “my brand” moisturiser.

A contact address and/or a website must be included along with the name of your business. Writing Post Office Boxes as the contact is very unethical and can lead to difficulties with the authorities especially when the public wish to make inquiries or complaints.

The front of the label should clearly show “my brand”, what it is (eg. Super Hydrating Face Moisturiser) and the volume or weight. It is best to write this as several options as all products have not the same properties. For example use a weight such 50 g/ml, or 4.5 fl oz (when distributing to the American market).

Next is what you can “claim” your product does. Be careful not to make therapeutic claims such as healing, antiseptic, scar removing, disinfectant, etc as this may incur the wrath of authorities such as the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) or the Federal Drugs Administration (FDA). They may either force you to withdraw the product or prove the product was made in a proper authorised facility. They may even force you to have double blind tests to prove the validity of your claims. This can be extremely costly. Your contract manufacturer can usually help you to word your descriptions so that you will not cross that fine line into the therapeutic world.

Finally you are advised to find a good, knowledgeable graphic designer to prepare your artwork so it looks professional. Unfortunately MS Word and MS Publisher documents are not used by industry and whilst they are acceptable to convey an idea, they are programs capable of converting into a printers graphics file except at a great added cost.


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Are sun screens really as effective as people wish you to believe?


Sunshine
(Referenced from www.thriveyouth.org)


This discussion wants to debunk some notions which have been established as being irrefutable proof why current sunscreens are the most effective and why the SPF classification can tell you everything about the skincare product.

Imagine these scenarios:

  • It is the middle of a hot summer’s day and you are driving around in your air conditioned car. You finish your journey and you notice that your arms and even legs are red and a little bit sore. You will instantly think “I should have put on sunscreen because I have become sunburnt by the nasty UV rays while in my car” 
  • You sit in the bus and notice that the cloth covered seats that had bright colours, seem to have faded.
  • The heavy drapes and curtains you draw on the windows to block out the worst of the days heat seemed to have faded and the polyamide backing appears to be disintegrating.
  • Why do women who wear foundation on their face seem to suffer less of melanomas on the face than do men?

The question to ask is why these events happen. Current thought dictates that all these events are occurring because of the UV A and B rays. These are high energy short wavelength beams which penetrate any living matter and cause alterations in skin, fabric, dyes etc. thereby creating serious damage.

All sunscreens must carry a Skin Protection Factor (SPF) which is a theoretical figure to designate the amount of time you may be able to stay in the sun without being sunburnt. The figure is relative to the length of time to get sunburned with the sunscreen on as opposed to not having any on at all. So in theory a sunscreen with an SPF 30 would allow a person to stay in the sun for 30 times longer than with no cream on before being sunburned. So if it takes you 20 minutes before you get sunburned at the peak of the heat of the day, then with the cream on you would theoretically be able to be in the sun for 600 minutes (10 hours). Problem is you perspire and so expose regions to the sun and can burn in those areas.

This does not take into consideration skin types, location of sun exposure (ie near the equator as opposed to near the poles), what time of the day to be exposed, melanin content in the skin etc. Most sunscreens that use an SPF are chemical sunscreens. These types absorb the UV rays through complex reactions with chemicals in the sunscreen. These can be very effective for UV rays although side reactions may lead to by-products which may not be so desirable on the skin.

Firstly we need to understand what these UV rays are. Broadly speaking nature has a very broad spectrum of wavelengths going from the shortest to the longest wavelength as shown below.

Spectrum
(Referenced from http://9-4fordham.wikispaces.com/Electro+Magnetic+Spectrum+and+light)

They range from Gamma rays then X-rays, UV, Visible light, Infrared (IR), Radio wave and Microwave.

So from this you would logically think that the shorter the wavelength the more “penetrating” it would be. Now we need to clarify some perceptions that have been bandied around which theoretically have problems in its logic.

It is a fact that UV rays do not pass through glass (a non-crystalline material) but yet can pass through quartz crystal. So when an object or person is behind a window or glass sheet, UV rays do not reach the target.

So what is it that created that skin burn when you were in that air conditioned car behind the closed window? The answer has to be something with a longer wavelength. Although you can “see” the visible spectrum, which are colours (therefore able to pass through the glass), it does not have enough energy to create damage to the skin. The damaging portion of the spectrum is the Infrared (IR) rays. Infrared easily passes through glass and is what we feel as heat.

The IR wavelength has a frequency which matches the size of the water molecule. It is long enough therefore to spin the water molecules in skin. They rotate faster and faster until they “evaporate” off the skin. So when you are in a car with the air conditioning on the atmosphere is dry, which will dry out the skin quicker.

Once the skin has no more moisture to protect it the skin starts to denature (much like what happens when you boil an egg and the albumen changes form). This denaturing creates what we perceive as pain and burning. After this burning, we have the blistering of the skin which leads to that typical peeling of the skin.

So moisture is very critical to skin. Another example of how water can protect skin is if any acid spills on your skin you will not feel an immediate burning sensation. There is a reaction on the skin which leads to a warming sensation. This heat is due to the reaction between the water molecules in the skin and the acid. When there is no more water to react with the acid, then the skin will start to burn or denature (giving the stinging sensation). So there is enough time to wash most acids (not all) off the skin before any damage is created.

So what should we do to protect our skin from the effects of sun and heat?

There may be some merit to protecting the skin against the action of UV rays but the fundamental thing that the skin has to have is moisture. The skincare cream that is applied needs to have several things in order to be effective.

1. Moisture deficient skin has to have a good replenishment and retention of water in the skin. (I will release an article on differentiating between a “moisturiser” and an “emollient” in the treatment of water poor and/or oil poor skin)

2. The moisturising effect needs to remain for long periods of time which means the water molecules need to be bound to the skin more strongly using a hydrotrope

3. There needs to be reflective materials in the cream so as to “bounce” or reflect the UV and IR waves away from the skin thereby protecting the penetration into the areas where the most damage occurs.

So if you cannot get your hands on an appropriate skincare cream for outdoors find a suitable moisturiser and liberally apply as often as necessary so that the skin does not dry out.

The ideal cream to use would be Australian Melaleuca’s patented Skin Protector Cream which has the appropriate Hydrotropes (water trapping chemicals) and micronised metal oxide compounds needed to reflect the harmful rays. It also contains the emolients and penetrating agents needed to ensure long lasting effects. Contrary to most creams it will be effective even when perspiring heavily, swimming etc. This cream is only removed by washing with a body cleanser. For regular use we also recommend Australian Melaleuca's Hand & Body Lotion which is also a very good moisturiser with very good hydrotropic materials although with no ability to filter out harmful wavelengths from the radiation spectrum.

Sunset
(Referenced from salmanshaheen.com)

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How to choose the appropriate packaging?

Which packaging would be appropriate?

   

Choosing the correct packaging for your cosmetic skincare range can sometimes be challenging. There are so many considerations to make when selecting packaging necessary for that special skincare range such as:

  • If the packaging is too showy then there is no justification for the expense of the packaging which places significant financial pressure on getting good returns on the initial sales.
  • If the packaging looks very expensive then people will not buy it because of a perception of the article being too expensive. This would then necessitate a big budget invested into the promotion in order to establish the brand name.
  • If the packaging is too plain and simple then it will be perceived as cheap. Your skincare range won’t stand out unless you design a very eye catching label to display on the packaging.
  • How can you make the product look elegant and classy while also having a presence on the shelf?

Before choosing packaging it is necessary to understand what your skincare creams, lotions and liquids are made of as this will impact on what can be used. Ortron as your contract manufacturer and formulator, could help you to choose the appropriate materials for jars and bottles and so avoid having to invest in the cost of researching compatibility tests on the packaging.

What your contract manufacturer should be able to advise you on is how some raw materials can react adversely with some packaging materials. Some examples are

  • Essential oils such as Tea Tree oil for example, is not always compatible with polyethylene plastic as the oil can travel through the wall of the container leaving a sticky residue on the outside.
  • Packaging made of PET cannot hold a solution which has a pH greater than 8 to 8.5.
  • Oils like IsoPropyl Myristate (IPM) can actually make the packaging brittle by stripping the plasticizer from poly vinyl chloride (PVC).
  • Many plastics cannot tolerate hot filling which may be necessary for lip balms, waxes, some hair gels etc.

 There are many packaging suppliers on the market. Many will require that you order a minimum order quantity (MOQ) which can be around 5,000 to 10,000 units. This mainly applies when the packaging you want is very exclusive.

Ideally it is best to deal with a supplier that has a wide variety of packaging and that they have them available “on the floor”. This means that the company has a regular stock of that type of packaging and therefore will supply any amounts needed.

The one big disadvantage in buying small quantities is that you end up paying considerably more than in pallet or box quantities. Ideally to minimise cost you should try to purchase the packaging in box lots which may be from 100 to 500 units although this may vary depending on the packaging size. In this respect Ortron is sometimes able to get better prices because of the volume we are able to purchase from the suppliers.

In most cases it is advantageous to deal with the packaging supplier that your contract manufacturer deals with. Our preferred supplier is Vision Packaging and you may wish to investigate their packaging range on their website at www.visionpackaging.com.au.  

Images courtesy of Vision Packaging

 

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Are alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) harmful as an exfoliant?

Are alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) harmful as an exfoliant on the skin and what are the alternatives?


There are many methods of achieving skin renewal (exfoliation) in order to get back that youthful glow to the skin’s surface. Some skincare products use chemicals, some are physical and some are enzymatic (proteolitic enzymes that consume dead skin) exfoliants.


The simplest exfoliant is physical. The physical method uses abrasives. They can be quite aggressive and may leave some scarring from using these abrasive materials (such as crushed walnut or almond shell) to scrub off the dead outer layer. Admittedly this is a relatively cheap and effective way of bringing back a shinier skin but in some cases there are repercussions from using abrasives, namely soreness and redness of the skin (acne skin should never use this method). These may take several days to settle down and heal before the full effects can be seen.


The chemical method is the most aggressive type. The worst type use phenolics and resorcinol which are known carcinogens. Have you ever noticed that when some people are exposed to sun, they appear to blush? This blushing does not disappear until they leave the warm environment. The reason for this is that they may have used a chemical exfoliant which are known in the cosmetic and skincare field as Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA). These chemicals are organic acids and are used as high concentration acids. These include examples such as glycolic acid, Kojic acid, retinoic acid (vitamin A), etc.

Molecules of AHA examples
These chemicals act like any acid does except that they are more destructive than mineral acids (sulphuric, or hydrochloric acids for instance which can cause severe burns but can be neutralised before any great damage is done). The AHAs have a strong liking for the proteins in the skin such as the amino end groups and begin to burn from those points by dissolving cell bonds and so undermine the integrity of the skin. This can result in the exposure of the melano sites in the skin. When these are exposed unsightly brown colour stains or blotches can appear on the skin.
Once these acids have bonded to these groups there is no way to “neutralise” or dilute them. So they are unstoppable. What then happens is that they begin to react indiscriminately with all of the skin, be it dead or live. Unfortunately the reaction continues until the acid is all “used up”.
The role of the acid is to “burn” off the outer layer of the skin (regardless whether it is old dead skin or live fresh skin) and force the skin to repair itself by producing a fresh layer. The method is to create enough of a burn that the skin blisters. Eventually the blisters “fall” off (much like a sunburn).
If this process is performed often enough then eventually there is no more skin able to properly cover the capillaries in the outer layer of skin. Asian skin is much finer than European type and so are more significantly affected by these acids (brown stains). The capillaries help in the maintenance of body temperature. When the body gets hot, blood flows through these fine blood vessels and are able to cool the blood by natural radiation and dispersion of heat. Very much like what the radiator does for the car in order to maintain a certain motor temperature.


When these capillaries are exposed to the elements then the blood is clearly seen to course through them, giving the appearance that the person is blushing or getting a hot flush and cannot retreat easily to normal until the person returns to a cool environment and their body temperature cools down.
It is yet to be formally acknowledged whether AHAs are harmful to the skin but there seems to be evidence that it cannot be good for it. Eventually someone will be seriously affected by it if there haven’t been cases registered already.

Alternatives to AHAs
There are alternatives to the physical and chemical exfoliants. These alternatives are specialty ingredients called “proteolitic enzymes”. These enzymes are more selective with what is being consumed. They are more interested in consuming the dead skin cells only and leave the healthy skin cells alone. They act a bit slower than other methods of exfoliation but their lasting effects are much more profound. Ortron has carefully researched which types of enzymes can be used. Ortron needed to be very careful which enzyme to use as some enzymes can be rather aggressive, such as the pineapple enzymes, which are very acidic.

b2ap3_thumbnail_hands.png

Image of the left hand treated with papaya enzyme over 5 weeks. The right hand has not been treated. (Image courtesy of Ortron Corporation Pty Ltd)

 Ortron has developed a patented papaya enzyme skincare range in cream and gel forms. In these creams the enzymes work symbiotically with several herbal extracts which achieve cell turnover. These give lasting and more desirable effects on the skin with very little, if no side effects at all. The enzymes take a little longer to achieve the desired results than the chemical and physical methods but with no harmful side effects of the others.

Papain is a non-irritating stabilised acid-free exfoliant which operate in the pH range of 6 to 7. Papain is a natural enzyme derived from the unripe papaya. The enzyme only digests the dead cell layer of the skin causing no damage to the underlying living cell layer (Proteolitic enzyme). People with sensitive skin can easily tolerate papain enzyme therapy whereas they may not handle the irritation often associated with AHAs , Retinoids and to a lesser extent BHAs in water based creams and gels.

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So you want to start up your own skin care range?

b2ap3_thumbnail_new-skincare-range.jpg

Typical things that people ask when wishing to start a range of skin care products of their own are

  • Why should I sell someone else’s skin care products when I can sell my own range?
  • I can’t seem to find any skin care product in the market that fulfils what I believe a product range should do. Can I make a better skin care range?
  • I have ideas on wonderful ingredients that should be marketed on my range. Who can contract manufacture and help me launch my skin care range?

Many people have the same great idea of starting their own skin care range but need to know what is necessary for them to research before they invest in launching their cosmetic skincare range.


As we are in the cosmetic contract manufacturing business, Ortron Corporation has been able to help many people start their range but have always given the following advice:

  1. Research where you are going to sell the product so that the retailers can get the skin care range (lotion; moisturiser; hair conditioner; foot treatments as people love to pamper their feet)
  2. What market are you targeting for example mature or oily acne skin etc?
  3. Find a reliable distributor that can reach a larger network of sales
  4. Establish a brand name and register it
  5. Get an idea of packaging and label design
  6. How will you be able to make your skin care range exclusive and set it apart from the rest
  7. Speak to a contract formulator that will put your product together so that you sell a finished range.


One of the biggest issues when selling your own range is that people want to / need to

  1. Notice the product range on the shelf because of the packaging and appearance
  2. Smell the product for any fragrance that resonates with them
  3. Try some of it on themselves to gauge how it feels and once again how it smells on themselves.

Rest assured that once people have tried your skin care product range and are convinced of the high quality then there is every possibility that you will have repeat sales.


The internet may not always be the best way to launch SALES of your range but is an excellent way to launch your CONCEPT and show how your product is exclusive and unique. 

Using online selling can enhance your sales but  if you are using this as the only distribution channel it may not provide the volume throughput you require to become viable long term.


Before introducing your new moisturising cream for example, you need to know that the people can buy the products from somewhere. This can either be via a shop or chain of shops or via a link to a webpage shopping trolley system. The last option is really to be created once you have developed a name for yourself. There will always be the limitation on the fact that people can’t touch and feel the product.


Ortron, as a small volume cosmetic contract manufacturer, has a vast and diverse library of over 350 cosmetic formulations which we can draw upon.  These range from acne treatments to foot treatments. We have the skin care product that can treat your customer from head to toe.

So we trust that this article has provided you an insight to where to start and rest assured that we at Ortron are very likely to have the right skin care formulation to give you the head start to make the product which will suit that very special ingredient you have in mind and  we can formulate this in your product to do what you will need it to do.

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